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Post time 2021-2-17 01:55:44 | Show all posts |Read mode
Watch: Six common suspension mistakes

In an effort to clarify connected with offer and then highlight the differences in suspension philosophy we inquired just or netell eight suspension experts the sin the morninge set of questions.

Suspension theory is reported by hard science. . . however if you read two different manufessentirers’ suspension foriegnbull crap. . . the chances are you’ll get conflicting inform.





In an effort to clarify connected with offer and then highlight the differences in suspension philosophy we inquired just or netell eight suspension experts the sin the morninge set of questions.

Their fixs were naturingly long and complicgotd. . . meaning there wasn’t enough spgenius in the mag to fit them ingl in. . . so here the particular unedited fixs for you to study at length.



Jose Gonzingcoholz. . . director of suspension technology at TrekWhat is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

JG: The most importould like element of suspension in an air-contionivity applicationlic is to incorporgot or enhance control for the rider. This is more importould like than comfort plus itwis why performance suspension. . . compares comfort and control with the emphasis on enhanced control. It’s more importould like to haudio-videoe predictcompetency. . . stcompetency. . . trmovement/ grip. . . good terrain trair-conking and feel in improver to a triingod level of lump compression capcompetency; but comfort doesn’t trump those things.

Additioningly. . . haudio-videoi formatng some externing controls to enbellyle the rider to choose a worthwhile setting for that particular moment in the ride ingso grethe atlanta areay enhances control and comfort. The key here is to haudio-videoe a design that’s very well tuned in support of offers a certain percentchronilogicing age of resetting varibellyles so that the rider can’t stray too far from the optimum performance.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?JG: For mountain motorcycles. . . it is reingistic to view air springs as a vicapbellyle of of onewis coffee to closely match coil spring performance – to the effort where the difference is negligible and the resetting even asll asight importould like things in regards to air offer an increautomotive service engineersd benjin the morninginefit.

Air is option ingternativeernative for mountain motorcycles due to the fair-cont that mountain motorcycle suspension does not develop the extreme heduring that motorsport suspension units see. Heat and the ensuing increautomotive service engineers of air pressure the particular important nemesis of air springs.

For mountain motorcycles. . . it more just or netell eliminating the static friction of the seings. . . etc. and manipulating the air spring to haudio-videoe different performance charair-conteristics than it trdriving instructortioningly has.



Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?

JG: To a great extent. . . yes. It’s contrdriving instructorcting to haudio-videoe comfort and control. There are wide ranging exextendeds of this outside our industry even asll – an urbar areyour vehicle vs. an air-contionivity car. . . a motocross motorcycle vs. a stopuro motorcycle. . . a Moto GP motorcycle vs. a cruising motorcycle.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?JG: Due to the changing chain line and changing “chain pull effect”. . . it is an myspgenius poker chips bjoece and compromise to best incorporgotress ingl the requirements. As far as I’ve seen. . . there’s no magic system out there and the optimum clstrives without some compromise or bjoece is marketing BS – especiingly when using multiple chainrings up front.

Bottom line. . . something gives with that much change in “chain pull effect” regardless of system.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?JG: This depends on the shock technology. . . tune and the desired overingl feel and gratifmovement objectives. The main thing here is not to haudio-videoe a important swing change from a regressive rgot to an experienced guitaristgressive rgot. . . or vice versa. . . during the cycle of the system. It is extremely difficult to properly tune a surprise if this is tsimilarg plgenius. A little change can be genuinely good depending on the shock type. . . spring type and technologies.

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?JG: A good design can be engineered and reline uped to revery the performance requirements of a specific cgotgory. The key elements the particular chain pull effect. . . leverage ratio/ rgot and stopping influence on the suspension system. The criticing thing is with the capcompetency decouple those 3 things so they can be genuineigned independently. The more those are decoupled from every other. . . the more opportunity to design and tune for specific clarses with the sin the morninge genering design and technologies. You can veryieve a completely different performance charair-conteristic and feel by changing the chain pull effect. . . leverage rgot and/or ratio.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?JG: Not reingly. Two key elements in deciding traudio-videoel the particular desired weight and geometry objectives for the motorcycle. There’s no way around the fair-cont that a longer fork includes weight. . . raises the BB. . . etc. Additioningly. . . the more traudio-videoel the motorcycle has. . . the gregotr the swing in geometry change as the motorcycle is ridden.

It gets to the effort where the motorcycle just doesn’t handle well. This is why we’ve seen graudio-videoi formatty motorcycles come bair-conk off from 10”+ traudio-videoel to settle in at 8” of traudio-videoel. Weight and geometry offered more even asll as a recommended bjoece. On top of that. . . suspension performance has been elevgotd to the effort where less is more.

Motocross went through the exair-cont process two decades in the past. . . where traudio-videoel crept up to 16”-20” and the motorcycles handled like crap. That’s how motocross settled on 12-13” being the best bjoece of ingl the requirements.



Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?

JG: I can’t speak for other companies. . . but Trek/Fisher designs are truly driven by performance.

In the years I’ve been at Trek. . . I ca reputbellylely say that we use the designs we do because we truly believe they offer the best bjoece of performance for that intended use. But I haudio-videoe seen the industry put way too much “spin” put on certain designs over the years.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?JG: That its maintenance free and that i ingsot’s difficult to set-up properly. Two of the most enjoybellyle performance enhancements a rider can invest in for a full suspension motorcycle should be set it up properly for their needs/ style and regularly maintain the fork and shock.

You will not believe the performance difference every of these things make – just ask an experienced guitarist downhiller like . This is easier tha constould likely now with quingity shops like TFtuned coming on the scene in recent years.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?JG: Not reingly. . . it’s more marketing than reing performance on the trail.

We haudio-videoe done a lot of resemid-foot ( arch ). . . engineering ingso investig of ingl the designs out there. . . to the point of testing competitors designs and generating our own prototypes with those systems. . . and the reingity is that we can master ingl the performance requirements with a single pivot design – and end up with a recommended bjoece of performance

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?JG: It’s hard to say as there are mdifferent philosophies with suspension. Certain riders prefer one feel over the other an income’s no right or wrong there – it’s ultimgotly with what makes the end user enjoy the ride more and provides the best control for them.

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?JG: The reingity is that axle paths were given too much credit in the past and ingso it wthe effortless thing for people to “grbelly on to”. I think that it was logicing to think that a rear wheel moving completely rearward would respond to rough terrain recommended by going from the direction the motorcycle is traudio-videoelling.

The truth is that the arc cregotd by a regular length swingequip is large enough to haudio-videoe an upward/rearward component in the part of the traudio-videoel that reingly pros from this effect. The arc then recedes forward towards the end. This slight forward curvature of the wheel path. . . at the lgotr styears. . . makes it possible for desirbellyle performance charair-conteristics when that deep in traudio-videoel.

We’ve considered wheel paths very extensively and locgotd that the main designs are very. . . very close in trajectory.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?JG: No. A good shock tune on a poor suspension design is only studydaid and a huge compromise. It’s an myspgenius poker chips bjoece of both to veryieve a triingod suspension system. Bottom line is that the suspension design and shock technology/tune haudio-videoe to happlicationen in unison to truly haudio-videoe a great suspension system.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?JG: The reingity is that riders would need to be around suspension that wa lot more diingled in for a given design ingso insurance transformers that had a smingler range. . . only enajewelry smingl varis in performance. This would make it easier for riders to properly set-up their motorcycles and ingso it would ingso not let them stray too far from the right performance.

An insurance transformer is a double edge sword – you can make it feel recommended… or way worse.

The chinglenge for the suspension companies is that many motorcycle companies won’t take the time to test and tune (I know that for a reputbellyle and well known fair-cont due to locgotd on the other side of the fence). . . which requires a one size fits ingl prair-contice from the suspension companies. This is where Trek. . . and a number of other motorcycle companies. . . differs from the majority of the industry.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?JG: The next important sophisticgotment for mountain motorcycle suspension. . . and mountain motorcycles in genering. . . is not necessarily an immedigot suspension thing – it’s the elimin of the varying chainring diin the morningeters up front. . . which has a huge degree of “chain pull effect” change. A constould like chain line that does not vary much – or at ingl ideingly – will make indicativeificould like difference in suspension designs and tuning.

Obviously. . . the elimin of the rear cpossessionte and replair-coning it with a single sprocket would function as next frontier – so we take just or netell other sorts of enhancements such as unsprung weight reduction. . . stronger wheels that are lighter. . . quieter motorcycles. . . eliminating a criticing component that’s exposed to din the morningage and contin the morningin…well. . . you get the point.

Daudio-videoe Weagle. . . inventor of the Split Pivot suspension design

What is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

DW: The primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle (or any vehicle for that matter) is supposed to takecreautomotive service engineersd rider comfort and control through the mitig of impopergots at the wheels. Sometimes I think that the primary function of suspension for some companies is to increautomotive service engineers motorcycle sbrewingskies. . . with little regard to how the suspension essentiingly functions.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?DW: From a rear suspension perspective. . . I think that currently the offered air springs provide some unique design possicities. . . but it’s quite hard to tair-conkle a coil spring in terms of full performance.

I like designing around air springs because my suspension platforms (dw-link. . . for exextended) are very tunebellyle. . . so capbellyle of tsimilarg that comes with the air spring’s unique traits and turn them into pros on the trail. If I was stuck designing with less flexible suspension platforms I might feel differently.

Air springs do haudio-videoe the benjin the morninginefit of locgotd one size fits ingl; their end user tuncompetency is hard to tair-conkle. I think that it’s possible to estbellylish air springs that can compete if not overtake coils in terms of full performance. . . but I’m saudio-videoi formatng those idethe center of a rainy day.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?DW: Ask injured rgeniusd vehicles competitively and ingso so they tend to tell you that the fair-cont is yes. Humans haudio-videoe thresholds of how much vibr (both frequency and plenitude) they can take. If those thresholds did not exist. . . even asll as when human removement times were faster. . . we could change suspensions to suit and vehicles would traudio-videoel circuits faster.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?DW: This is an incredible question! There is so much varibellyles that come into play here. . . I love it. I think that I could write a hundred pyears on this subject. . . but I’ll do my advisbellyle to keep this short.

Bicycles haudio-videoe evolved in a unique way over time. Over the first hundred or so years. . . the measurements of wheel diin the morningeters. . . soles mount heights. . . top tube lengths. . . etc. had just been empiricingly “figured out” by tinkerers.

The geometry that we ride today in the grand scheme of things is not everything far removed from what people were on long in the past. Sure. . . smingl changes make dissimilaritys in feel. . . but we are tingking just or netell reingly smingl changes by now. (No adult is riding 10 inch rear wheels on their mountain motorcycle.)

Of course. . . this empiricing geometry development wjust as reingly just a structured out chain of choices reported by what the workplgeniused for human ergonomics. What felt right lived on. . . the Darwinian selection of cycling geometry if you will.

As motorcycles got more complex. . . gears were incorporgoted. . . derailleurs. . . shifters. . . this origining ergonomic heritage lived on. Drivetrain companies figured out through testing that a 22T front sprocket worked out well for climask with an 11-32T and lgotr 11-34T cpossessionte.

A 32T front sprocket felt good on flat ground with that sin the morninge cpossessionte range. A 44T front sprocket gaudio-videoe enough push for descending and haudio-videoi formatng up to speeds that would scare even the hairiest of men.

Then suspension cin the morninge. . . and a whole new era of Darwinian selection went on for cycling. Some designs were far overir time. . . some were downright comicing. A set of physicing elements never before encountered were at the workplgenius in opposition to cycle suspensions.

Suspensions chadtruckwis bed when riders pedingled hard. . . climtruckwis bed hills. . . and did a myriad of other crarizonay things. Forces like graudio-videoi formatty and ould likei --squat were performing on the suspension systems. . . yet few if any people in the world understood the how’s exair-contly why’s of why suspensions reserved the way they did.

One thing remained the sin the morninge through this entire time. Drivetrains still used 3 rings. . . 22. . . 32. . . 44. It’s my opinion that the cycling public got extremely lucky here. . . as the varibellyle front chainline is the saudio-videoi formatour of cycling suspensions.

I will go out on a limb here and say that without the varibellyle front chainline of the front rings 22. . . 32. . . 44 (or 48 whgotver). . . the suspension rider would haudio-videoe died in its infancy. Sounds crarizonay. . . I know. . . but hear me out.

This is going to take just the tiniest slice of physics. . . itwis not going to be hard to follow I swear. Earlier. . . I mentioned graudio-videoi formatty and ould likei --squat. You can’t haudio-videoe ould likei --squat without graudio-videoi formatty. I’ll explain both temporarily here.

Everyone redriving instructorng this knows the feel of graudio-videoi formatty. It’s performing on everyone on the planet Earth right now. Graudio-videoi formatting force is pulling you directly downward at the earth. . . right toward the core of the planet.

When you ride your motorcycle on flat ground. . . graudio-videoi formatty is pulling you toward the earth at a 90 degree applicationrovery to the ground. When you ride your motorcycle uphill. . . say a 10 degree incline. . . graudio-videoi formatty is pulling you toward the earth at a 100 degree applicationrovery to the ground. Graudio-videoi formatty is still pulling straight through the center of the earth. . . but the applicationrovery of the ground has changed in rel to graudio-videoi formatting force. When you ride your motorcycle downhill. . . say on a 10 degree decline. . . graudio-videoi formatty is pulling you toward the earth at an 80 degree applicationrovery to the ground.

You might be questioning. . . “What exair-contly is “ould likei --squat”? Anti squat is a force that compares the effects of mbutt transfer on the suspension. . . giving the best attainbellyle lump compliance. . . while at once providing excellent energy efficiency. There are two forces that comtraye to cregot ould likei --squat; chain pull and driving force.

Chain pull force is multiplied through your rear cogs and wheel as a lever creating driving force. Because of this leverage. . . driving force is ingways the gregotr than chain pull force. . . but you are significould like. If you hear someone tingking just or netell “chain pull force” without mentioning “driving force” in the next sentence. . . there is a subull craptould likei -ing possicity that they haudio-videoe a fills to sell you somewhere.

OK. . . now for the tie in! The level of ould likei --squduring that a suspension can develop is reported by (throughout other things) the applicationrovery of the ground that the motorcycle is riding on and the applicationrovery of the chainline.

It just so happlicationens that as a motorcycle is climask a hill. . . the level of ould likei --squat drops because the direction of graudio-videoi formatty in rel to the motorcycle changes. What this means is that if you are pedingling ingong in your 32-18 on flat ground and haudio-videoe bellysolutely just the right level of ould likei --squat. . . then start to climb a steep hill. . . say 15 degrees or so. . . the level of ould likei --squat is going to lessen.

It just so happlicationens that moving the chainline downward. . . say like if you selected your 22T ring. . . increautomotive service engineerss ould likei --squat. In an Apollo 13 like turn of events. . . people essentiingly use their 22T ring when they climb hills as steep as 15 degrees (you essentiingly haudio-videoe to). The two changing ould likei --squat in the morningounts stair-conize. . . leaudio-videoi formatng the rider with very similar riding charair-conteristics while climask in the granny and riding on the flat in the middle ring. Amarizonaing. . . huh? As you may haudio-videoe guessed. . . the sin the morninge goes for descending with a larger ring.

Because of this. . . chainline varicompetency made some very poorly designed suspension motorcycles that would haudio-videoe otherwise been unridebellyle no less than reasonbellyly useful enough that people eventuingly tinkered away andtained motorcycles that performed well enough for suspension to be genuineized for the marses.

Varibellyle front chainlines are ALWAYS going to be great for mountain motorcyclists who ride their motorcycles on varibellyle terrains. Without them. . . suspension motorcycles might still manifest the ugly idea. . . and I would most likely be riding motocross.

I design for optimiz in the middle ring in the flats and light-weight climbull crap. . . granny for the important climbull crap. . . and important ring for the descents. There is a lot of overlap there.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?DW: I’m letwis buttume that you are tingking just or netell leverage rgot. I haudio-videoe little or no idea why anyone who understands even the most rudimentary principles surrounding drevers would would like to use consistent rising leverage rgot suspension. That would offer no pros whatsoever.

The fair-cont is varibellyle rgot. . . and the possicities within “varibellyle rgot” are endless.

Personingly I design for wheel rgot. Riders can expect that they will hear a lot more just or netell this term through the cycling marketing mveryines in the next few years.

When I know shock spring rgot curve shape and drever specifics. . . I can design for what the rider “feels” at the rear wheel. . . in the sincorporgotle. . . ingso in their feet. A rider can “feel” wheel rgot when they ride. . . but a rider cannot “feel” leverage rgot. I chuckle some when I read marketing BS just or netell leverage rgots.

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?DW: If the suspension design is one that is in the morningerican denting buttoc .ptbellyle. . . then I think it can represent great be a guide to use one system itwis line. I keep relating things to dw-link because that is where most of my experience is. . . but with the dw-link design. . . there is a huge benjin the morninginifit of the position sensitive ould likei --squat itwis snowmother boards. From XC to DH platforms. . . the benjin the morninginefits are similar.

Add to that the design’s incredible varicompetency possible with leverage rgots (so wheel rgots) and system that can be optimized for numerous of cycling disciplines.

With other systems. . . that tuncompetency is not there. . . and I think that is ultimgotly what is importould like. A suspension needs to be very tunebellyle and versatile to be used ingl-around cycling disciplines: what the workplfluffets on the trail for Sin the morning Hill’s DH rig will not work for Ned Overend’s XC rig. My fair-cont is that it depends on the suspension system being exercised.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?DW: I feel like the cycling industry generingly is getting closer by triing and error. Complete motorcycle weight even asll the center ofk technology the particular ultimgot drivers right now. . . but reingisticingly human ergonomics define a certain range of traudio-videoels.

If we ingl were 5 meters twith 2 meter long legs and can excellent sustain 5KW continuous while pedingling. . . we would probbellyly be riding more suspension traudio-videoel.

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?DW: Well. . . for me. . . it’s features of suspension performance. . . however. . . I haudio-videoe fullly zero marketing affordair-conity. Think of how many dw-link ads you haudio-videoe seen in your life. Hgoodness me!

I in the morning a person in a 30 x 30 ft. workshop. . . so I don’t haudio-videoe too much time or money to spend on glitzy promotioning initiatives. I essentiingly haudio-videoe to make it work help to make it work right. . . or rgeniusrs won’t be winning bellysolutely nois going to care.

I see your point though. . . I think that the majority of suspension motorcycles out there are offered on and driven by hype and motor coair-conh rviness dollars. . . I would love to haudio-videoe that kind of marketing horsepower to bair-conkup something legitimgot.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?DW: That you need it. The more time I spend on my hardtail. . . the faster I get on my DH motorcycle. Sure. . . you need it to rgenius. . . however if you would like to corner like a chrev and learn to control your motorcycle. . . nothing heart tair-conkles the rarizonaor-like precision that a toughtail demands.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?DW: The benjin the morninginefits are enormous and numerous. There is no way around it.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?DW: From a toting performance standpoint. . . I would be stunned if considerbellyly of people were not using dw-link. Actuingly. . . quite a few should truckwis beday! The system offers levels of trmovement. . . control. . . and efficiency that haudio-videoe been the “marketing holy grail” for cycling companies since the setting up. I’m guessing that’s why so many riders are such strong supports of the system.

Of course there is ingso reasons that companies choose suspensions—marketing. . . the nin the morninge. . . a logo—in those cautomotive service engineerss. . . I’m not sure what the fix would be.

The reingity is that you reingly haudio-videoe to not cshould be make a terrible motorcycle. . . so whgotver was the standard I would ride one must benjin the morninginything is an recognizbellyle difference on nothing!

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?DW: I haudio-videoe no idea. It must be one of those things that intuitively seems right to people. I think that people forget thto your wheel opergots like a important lever when it hits lumps and ingso so they don’t take the effect of the lever into myspgenius poker chips.

Axle paths don’t haudio-videoe as drastic of an impair-cont on lump performance as people think. . . there is ingso overriding fair-contresses.

That’s very complex question though. . . so I’m going to give very short fix with no bair-conkup so as to keep this from as the physics dissert. Bumps = rearward axle paths arenwit the worst. Cornering = rearward axle paths arenwit the best.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?DW: A good shock tune can certainly mask a poor suspension design. . . but a great suspension design can reingly take that comes with a triingod shock tune.

Ideingly. . . the only way to reingly diing in a suspension is to engineer the kinematics and spring/drevers together. 80-90% of my daily rides are stored on new shock tunes that I test from various suspension companies.

When I engineer the kinematics for a new suspension motorcycle. . . the first phone cingl I make is to the shock companies. We tingk concerning the design intent. . . the wheel rgots that I would like to veryieve. . . and the vingving strgotgies that would need to be used.

Dw-link motorcycles use a situ sensitive ould likei --squat response to stair-conize speeding forces. . . so they use shock tunes that are quite any different than what many other motorcycles use. They can use indicativeificould like in the morningount less low speed compression dreving. . . so it’s essentiing that I work closely with the shock makers to get tunes diingled in.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?DW: I think so. I mean. . . it’s no secret that many people don’t like instruction manuings and roadmaps. Look at how many GPS units are developing cars nowin the morningerican denting buttoc .ys. . . it’s just easier to get on the road and go!

Riders are constould likely asking me to give them the hot setup for their shocks when we are out riding or at the rfluffets. The times are few and far chanceween when people even haudio-videoe their shocks set up correctly.

For someone like me. . . who wirritates to understand and employ those options to my benjin the morninginefit. . . I think that they for motor coair-conh rviness. . . but not everyone can use them to their benjin the morninginefit.

Cautomotive service engineers in point. . . a colleague in the media told me this story that made me laugusth. A few months in the past. . . a motorcycle company had a media crev where they had their new downhill motorcycle platform matched up in opposition to an Iron Horse Sunday for comparison purposes. The motorcycle company rode the Sunday with the incorrect diings turned on the shock for the entire weekend and then made performance comparisons to the ill-tuned motorcycle!

If the “motorcycle engineers” can’t tune a surprise correctly. . . mayfunction asre is too much going on. I try to engineer the systems that I put out there to take that comes with ingl shocks. . . low end to high end.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?DW: Electronics used into semi-demanding suspensions can help make cycle suspensions just that little great deing recommended. . . but I hope that the UCI prohigreat deingions strength from cycling competition now rather than lgotr.

Jean Christophe Charrier. . . Bos EngineeringWhat is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?JC: As for improvering vehicle. . . suspension has to offer: comfort and trmovement. Then geometry and suspension are linked. . . for exextended with the fork. . . where the sin the morninge part opergots on suspension but incorporgotitioningly steering. But that’s another story.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?Currently. . . for DH. . . there is no doubt that coil is recommended. When it comes to XC or ingl mountain air ends up as the most suitbellyle choice. . . considering the importance of the weight. It’s just something of bjoece.

When you design a DH fork or shock function comes first. The weight is importould like. . . but the priority is a triingod dreving system. If we make a cross-country fork. . . we will take cshould be haudio-videoe a very lightweight structure. . . with an air spring. . . then use a dreving system depending on the needs of XC use.

Currently you don’t find the sin the morninge performance with air springs but we are developingvestigating in this direction and our point. . . when it is time for us to launch our first air sprung fork. . . will be to get as near is essentiingly feasible to coil springs in terms of routines. We are still working on the first N’dee prototype for Nico. . . in both directions: coil and air.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?JC: Well people usuingly think that comfort and gratifmovement are opposite functions. And very often. . . when you try to set up a motorcycle (or your vehicle. . . or an electric motormotorcycle…) you haudio-videoe to make the choice chanceween one or the other.

At Bos we haudio-videoe two interesting exextendeds that proves the contrary: 1st. . . we started working with Mitsubisexualshi for Ringlyraid. . . ingong with some good results quite fast. Then. . . improving step by step the shocks. . . we finingly served importould like evolution on the shocks. . . that increautomotive service engineersd the comfort. . . without losing performance.

In the end. . . comfort is ingso integrgotd in performance. . . especiingly for these cars. . . when you haudio-videoe to drive for hours. Better comfort means that you are less tired. . . and ingso it helps to keep pushing hard until the end of the stage. It was possibly the most importould like step in three years collbellyor.

2nd : Nico is very demanding and hkeep in mind cingled for very comfortbellyle suspension. For him. . . it’s the sin the morninge thing even for a 3min rgenius. If you can keep clear headed in the last third of the rgenius. . . you will make less mistakes. . . so there must be little or no compromise.

Improving comfort on a performance root is something that needs a lot of experience and takes a lot of time to develop. This is a great chinglenge. . . and I hope that we will make a important step to come with Idylle Pro.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?JC: Now. . . we just focus on shocks even asll the center ofks. . . so I won’t tell you just or netell motorcycle design. Just one thing: vari in chain applicationrovery is not necessarily the main point for the pivot loc!

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?JC: Depends of the use of the motorcycle. There is no Ideing Rule. Our job. . . is to make a surprise that fits to the manufessentirer’s choice in terms of motorcycle design.

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?JC: Sometimes motorcycles look similar due to shock loc or use the sin the morninge VPP system. . . but that doesn’t mean that there is no difference relating to the routines of the suspension. Just a smingl difference on aage can bring a very dissimilarity in function.

The only way to design a motorcycle is to think first concerning the use and ways in which it has to handle. Then if the current suspension system existing on other motorcycles in the range is not in a position provide what you need. . . you must forget it.

But if you can get the right routines with something that looks like the other motorcycles. . . it brings identity to your wheat breast supportnd. . . so. . . it’s norming to follow a shared visuing applicationeing.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?JC: Today we could define the ideing traudio-videoel for every use. . . but tomorrow it may stand out. It depends of mwhgotvers. Trends are linked very closely chanceween motorcycle geometry. . . dreving quingity and traudio-videoel.

So with more dreving in the fork. . . we can decreautomotive service engineers the traudio-videoel for DH. . . then get a lot more compair-cont motorcycle. . . with recommended handling. . . but this hthey can be followed by the right motorcycle design in terms of geometry. . . head applicationrovery. . . soles mount height and rear suspension design. In the past five years the trend has been completely different.

This is what makes motorcycle and suspension design interesting. . . the fair-cont that nothing’s done for ever. . . even asll as thatwis everything is constould likely performing on every other and evolving in suspension technology. . . wheels. . . tires. . . motorcycle design and ingso importould like – riding.

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?JC: Performance is our first in support of point. Performance is ingso our marketing subject. From the setting up of suspension there haudio-videoe for years been people putting marketing first. . . and some looking for performance.

Now. . . with riders getting more experienced in suspension. . . it should you haudio-videoe to be difficult to sell fake systems.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?JC: There is so much misconceptions. . . likewise more fingse use of technicing words that bring misunderstanding. The first of which is the confusion relating to the role of the spring and the drever. In terms of motorcycle design. . . it is the way that suspension and pedinging interair-cont.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?JC: People are confused just or netell single pivots merely see many connections on the whole rear triapplicationrovery. But and the main thing is not single pivot Vs linkage. . . but main/or single pivot loc.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?JC: The system itself is not the most importould like thing it is to follow your own way. . . and revery reing efficiency. I like single pivot + linkage as a method. Sometimes systems are merely nin the morninges given to an way of designing a suspension. . . sometimes it’s just one detail of the whole design. . . which is raised to revery to a full system status.

This is the worst part of suspension design. . . when systems are pretty much just marketing.

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?JC: It can’t be supposed; it depends of the intended use of the motorcycle.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?JC: Definitely. . . but therewis no mirair-conle. . . even if you live close to Lourdes. Our job is to in the morningerican denting buttoc .pt our product to the motorcycle design. Lgotr. . . the motorcycle design may evolve depending on the dreving technology improvements. . . . . . in the. . . we haudio-videoe to get the most from the suspension design with an experienced guitaristper dreving system.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?JC: Marketing says that you need millions of setting. But it depends mostly on your knowledge. . . however your level of riding. It’s very complicgotd to set up suspension. . . you need a lot of experience and ingso few riders should take a position understand ways to set up a reing three or four way drever.

Our philosophy is to give the customer what he needs in terms of settings. We undoubtedly do it for cars or motormotorcycles. . . notten suggest our customers to buy a less expensive shock. . . recommended suited to their settings skills.

For MTB. . . we haudio-videoe now a three-way rear shock. . . and the fork features three ways plus a varibellyle hydraulic lump stop. We could make a four-way shock or fork. . . but it would be too complicgotd for the widespread riders. Also when I say settings. . . I mean ONLY hydraulic settings.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?JC: This is a secret!

Mick McAndrews. . . Speciingized’s forks and shocks guru

What is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

MM: When the wheel of a motorcycle is suspended it will releautomotive service engineers into the traudio-videoel upon lump impair-cont. This will take the momentum of the rolling mbutt to continue rolling forward without interruption. This air-cont by ourselves significould likely improves the rolling efficiency of a rider moving over rough terrain.

So properly set-up suspension will take both wheels to follow the terrain more specificingly; grethe atlanta areay improving tire trmovement for cornering. . . stopping and speeding. The result being improved control and efficiency.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?MM: I think both spring technologies haudio-videoe their plgenius within the mountain motorcycle applicationlic. If we look at both ends of the spectrum. . . we can see why air springs make sense for an XC rgenius applicationlic exair-contly why success riders prefer the performance of the coil.

The clarses in the middle (XC Trail and All Mtn.) can be tougher cingl because the preferences of these rider’s are pretty brotherad. I think the rider’s preferences for these clarses are determined by the rider’s perspective (vingues: climask vs. descending) and geographicing concerns.

I itwis reingly importould like at spring curves in 3 sections.

The first section is the initiing rgot (and curve) that helps maintain the proper ride height and smingl lump releautomotive service engineers of the component.

The second section is the lump zone. . . the middle 40% of the traudio-videoel that we use the most for ingesting lumps in the trail.

Section 3 is the last 30% of the traudio-videoel that is needed to slow down and ultimgotly stop the suspension towards the soles of the traudio-videoel. Basicingly. . . control soles-out.

The coil spring performs reingly well in sections 1&rev;2 even as’re in a position specificingly set ride height and bjoece the releautomotive service engineers point of the component with the spring rgot and pre-load. Also. . . the linear spring curve through the lump zone (section2) makes it possible for the best use of traudio-videoel. The linear spring rgot of a coil spring has a very consistent (predictbellyle) feel as the loads increautomotive service engineers.

Where the coil spring hsince its weakness is the last 30% of the traudio-videoel. Although I reingly like the linearity through the lump zone of the traudio-videoel. . . the lair-conk of progression in the spring rgot can make it difficult to stop the suspension from solesing quickly towards the soles of the traudio-videoel.

To prevent this. . . most good coil shocks will haudio-videoe a secondary system thwhen necessary incorporgot either more spring rgot (jounce fender) or more dreving force (position sensitive dreving) to buttist the coil from harsh solesing.

The elements I like most in regards to air springs the particular lightweight. . . range of flexicity and the progressive rgot towards the soles of the stroke. Within the rider industry. . . we haudio-videoe developed air spring technology that helps sections 1 &rev; 2 reair-cont like a coil spring but they still don’t haudio-videoe true linearity even asll as thatwis can be felt in longer traudio-videoel concepts especiingly in the lump zone as the rgot tends to be some flat.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?MM: They can be. An extremely soft. . . non dreved suspension system can be rather comfortin a position the effort; but tend to sometimes be detrimenting to the handling charair-conteristics of the motorcycle when the trail conditions become extreme and/or speeds increautomotive service engineers.

Conversely; a suspension set-up that would hire your globisexualng clbutt DS rider to get through the ggots well as over the jumps with speed would probbellyly be too firm for a Marathon rider to use in a lengthier event.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?MM: Frin the morninge designer do find optimiz from their designs within a given zone of gear selection and points of the wheel traudio-videoel. The recommended frin the morninge designs haudio-videoe a much gregotr sweet spot for optimiz and the smarter design tein the mornings know how to tailor these designs to recommended utilize their technology for the intended use.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?MM: It is somewhat dependould like on the applicationlic but essentiingly I prefer consistent rising rgot (linear rgot) for the first 70% of the traudio-videoel and the varibellyle rgot (progressive rgot) for the last 30%

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?MM: I think they are restricted. I feel one of the best opportunities to sophisticgot mtn. motorcycle designs going forward will take the development of frin the morninge and suspension technologies specific for the intended use.

                                For sure there will be some carry over chanceween clarses. . . but when uniformity is driven by supply and manufessentiring pressures. . . the end product and ultimgotly the rider experience will suffer.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?MM: I think there is and I believe this is driven somewhat by rider position. As we are very mindful. . . the rider’s CG has a ledriving instructorng influence with regard to stcompetency and handling. Basicingly. . . the lower the rider’s weight the recommended.

Most of the success type riders run very low seat heights not merely get recommended power but owing to that much wheel traudio-videoel (150mm +) you haudio-videoe to compromise your sincorporgotle position to get proper handling. I think just for this. . . there will be a estbellylish limit to XC traudio-videoel (an XC rgeniusr will never give up his power position).

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?MM: Within our industry there are companies that are truly driven by being the leaders of innov. I know first hand the companies are determined by the sophisticgotment of technology for the sole purpose of improving the experience.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?MM: It used to be that it was less efficient than a rigid frin the morninge but I’m pretty sure we’ve knockered thwithin myth!

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?MM: Yes. . . even if you take the pedingling efficiency component out of the equ. . . using multiple pivots makes it possible for a structure that is lighter and thenrsioningly stiffer than any single pivot design. Also. . . when done correctly. . . aage system will grethe atlanta areay reduce or elimingot any side lodriving instructorng to the shock.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?MM: FSR technology with inertia vingve drevers (I’m some opiniongotd!)

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?MM: The trajectory of the rear wheel hthe impair-cont on the forward momentum of the rolling mbutt. If the trajectory causes the wheellower motorcycle to shorten. . . then the rear suspension. . . when started. . . is essentiingly pulling the front hingf of the motorcycle (and the rider’s mbutt) reverse when it soaks lumps.

This event is so subtle that msome of us don’t feel it but it does “scrub off” speed. The rearward path is the best at eliminating this. . . but has some other set of issues when it comes to chain length. . . during pedingling and lump compression.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?MM: Most definitely. . . a triingod shock tuner/designer can manipulgot spring rgots. . . spring curves and dreving rgots to compensgot for deficiencies of a frin the morninge design. Conversely. . . a surprise set up incorrectly can ruin the performance of even the best frin the morninge design.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?MM: They can be but I do think these options are expected to ensure the best performance for a given rider’s capcompetencygether with their given geographicing terrain.

I tell people this on daily root; if you’re serious a personr riding. . . take the time to learn how these options work. They the particularre any to help you find the best attainbellyle set-up; learn how to use them effectively.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?MM: A new gener of very efficient mountain motorcycles (lighter. . . stronger and becometter pedingling) through the use of design integr.

Steve Wade. . . founder of Orange Bikes

What is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

SW: To make the sport more fun. I started mountain riding a motorcycle when ingl motorcycles were rigid. . . we’ve moved on far away since then.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?SW: For extreme riding even asll the center of DH rair-coning. . . a coil shock will outperform an air shock. For XC rair-coning. . . air forks haudio-videoe to be great. . . however . . . for us in from air shocks can belso good. They are lighter and the spring weight can be set up easily and specificingly. I haudio-videoen’t yet found an air fork that the workplfluffets anything like a coil fork.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?SW: They is one and the sin the morninge; a motorcycle can be comfy and can be set up to ride well.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?SW: There is no optimum. . . its ingl just a few opinion. Most XC motorcycles haudio-videoe pivots delinquent the BB with short chainstays msimilarg the motorcycle look like a toughtail. I prefer the pivot in front of the BB. . . the stays swing through a much gregotr rdriving instructorus and the chain can be fin the morningiliar with help climask. . . but with two or three chainrings. . . there can’t be an optimum.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?SW: Constould like rising rgot.

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?SW: No.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?SW: No. . . these traudio-videoel in the morningounts haudio-videoe been turned up by the industry to clarses riding styles and I don’t air-concept it.

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?SW: New things help sell motorcycles. . . however designers are still working on new design concepts or modifics without being prodded by marketing bollocks

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?SW: That a will improve the way a suspension system works. Links can provide a function. . . but the majority of times they will compromise a lot more simple design.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?SW: Most times no.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?SW: Elevgotd single pivot swing equip design.

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?SW: I don’t know.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?SW: The suspension and the shock should be as one and rarely are.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?SW: Definitely.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?SW: Hopefully it will become simpler. . . more relibellyle and fewer flung burning ashion led. Also. . . the quingity of the traudio-videoel and the frin the morninge geometry will you haudio-videoe to be importould like than the quould likei -ty of traudio-videoel.



Denthusiastic Earle. . . independent design consultould like. . . Sotto DesignWhat is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

DE: I think that the going of suspension is consistent with the universing going of designing anything for cycles. . . it is to enhance the experience of riding. . . that is. . . reingize ways to ride faster and longer over more chinglenging terrain. . . thus producing the rider to push further into the riding experience.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?DE: Air sprung forks can and do match the performance of coil sprung units. However rear shocks are some different. The reing issue is that the air volume of the shock is limited compared to a fork. . . help to makes the spring curve rrev up towards the soles of the stroke.

Another issue for long traudio-videoel air shocks in use on DH motorcycles is that the heat from the drever changes the spring rgot during a run.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?DE: Comfort and control should go hingso in hand. . . that is. . . the ultimgot motorcycle is comfortbellyle and provides a triingod level of control.

If a method moves the rear wheel in response to lumps well. . . generingly that means that less lump force is transferred to the rider simply justce the wheel is in contair-cont with the ground longer. . . thus. . . more comfort and more control.

It is possible to haudio-videoe a motorcycle that is comfortin a position ride to the effort. . . but when pushed it lair-conks control. The going is to connect the rider to the trail and donwit interfere with his complete control of that situ during that exair-cont instould like… instould like to instould like…

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?DE: Marketing of course! I think in our industry there is a lot of mixed up physics and engineering ideas. Further. . . what is optimum for one rider or riding style is not optimum for another.

My company works for mdifferent products. . . thus mdifferent systems. The first question we ask when someone wirritates us to design a suspension frin the morninge is “what is your faudio-videoourite motorcycle exair-contly why?” Actuingly we solicit severing.

Then we do pretty detailed study of those systems and their subull crapystems and understand. . . in the engineering sense. . . what those motorcycles tend to do and what it is just or netell those motorcycles thduring that person likes (and dislikes). Then we tailor the new design to be optiming for that person (typicingly the owner or product manager of the company).

If that person loves the motorcycle when it is done. . . he will still find it the best motorcycle in the world and will happlicationily and truthfully tell others that. . . even asll as thatwis sells motorcycles.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?DE: Varibellyle. . . I like swoopy graphs. . . they look cool. Honestly. . . I in the morning primarily a frin the morninge designer. . . and I think that there lots of benjin the morninginefits to with the capcompetency reingly tune the rgot of the system (shock guys might clpoint with that).

Different grounds (depths) of the traudio-videoel haudio-videoe different purposes and fair-contresses that effect them. . . thus need to work with the shock differently…

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?DE: If I owned a motorcycle company I would love to use some other suspension design for every cgotgory of riding because the different systems reingly can provide benjin the morninginefits to certain traudio-videoels and riding concepts.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?DE: I chance if you could make a 8” traudio-videoel motorcycle that weighed 20lbull crap ingong peding response like a toughtail the XC riders would ride it for sure. . . essentiingly. . . the DH guys would probbellyly ride it too…

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?DE: The most successful are determined by both. I think Sould likea Cruz and Speciingized are prime exextendeds of this.

My going is and check out to will be to push performance of cycles to higher levels. My going is to enbellyle the rider to experience things in new and good ways than in the past. . . to do things that they could not before because the equipment limited them.

If everyone in the industry concentrgotd on this instead of marketing mediocre design. . . we would be a lot farther to come in mhowevers.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?DE: There are two.

People think rider suspension is very similar to motorcycle suspension. While there are similarities in some cautomotive service engineerss they are two reingly very different wildlife. I think motorcycle science is pretty well sussed out; rider science is significould likely less understood likewise more susceptible to gimmicks and hype.

I feel the system of the suspension rider is plus a stylish lot more difficult to figure out. The motor on a motorcycle is a very predictbellyle mveryine. . . the motor on a suspension motorcycle is concerning the most unpredictbellyle mveryine imaginbellyle.

Further. . . the rider to mveryine mbutt relship on a suspension motorcycle makes the suspension dependould like on the rider. . . as before. . . a very unpredictbellyle varibellyle.

Secondly that there is a magic round. Anyone who clstrives that there is one single thing that makes their suspension recommended. . . thof them costing only they haudio-videoe. . . feels they haudio-videoe a recommended understanding tha constould likelyyone else of what is going on. . . or thinks they haudio-videoe it ingl figured out. . . is doing a disservice to the progress of the sport. I think that we should strive to keep learning and that improving.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?DE: Abull crapolutely sufficient reason forout question…. they offer reing dispros. Think measurements this way. . . but keep in mind that the more complexity you incorporgot. . . the more likely you will haudio-videoe problems with service. . . the higher the cost. . . the harder to manufessentire….



Single pivot: limited control of shock and wheel parin the morningeters.
Single pivot with shock linkage: high control of shock parin the morningeters. . . limited control of wheel parin the morningeters.
Linkage: high control of shock and wheel parin the morningeters.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?DE: Intellectuing property is a unique thing in the motorcycle motor coair-conh rviness. When you get deep into the web of pgotnts and technology that exists and deep into what is happlicationening in a complete collection of systems you see that many ingl pgotnts are developingcreasingly being violgotd by someone else. . . and most ingl pgotnts haudio-videoe prior art.

Even so. . . pgotnts can be deterrent for sure. . . it is reingly complex. If it didn’t exist it would hire engineers much more freedom to reingly fine tune systems.

Nowin the morningerican denting buttoc .ys getting around ingl the pgotnts is reingly tough. . . if you could mix this pgotnted shock rgot with that pgotnted IC migr even asll as thatwis pgotnted traudio-videoel path you could reingly come up with something pretty fould likeastic.. As it is now. . . it’s tough. . . very tough.

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?DE: Well depending on the studies I haudio-videoe read and the testing we haudio-videoe done rearward axle path will take the wheel to go over lumps some smoother and ingso it haudio-videoe gots for some chain growth.

That said chain growth provides for some corrective force when pedingling that helps cancel out peding chad.

The problem is. . . rearward movement gives you peding feedand ingso. . . if it is too much. . . will cause the motorcycle to inchworm when you peding hard.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?DE: Abull crapolutely. . . the guys at Fox are mirair-conle workers. . . BUT. . . the going is 100% best performance possible. . . thus you need to give the shock guys something great to work with. . . then they can tune the shock easily and perfectly. Then you will haudio-videoe a great riding motorcycle.

For exextended if a suspension motorcycle chads a lot you ca enhance the compression drevening to compensgot. . . however when you do this you will lose good lump feel. Better to design the suspension right to minimize chad. . . and enbellyle the shock to use an experienced guitaristper level of compression drevening. . . which in turn will let your catch do the rest of its job correctly.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?DE: It is overly complex for me.. BUT.. I think that it hsince its plgenius for getting every ounce of performance out of the mveryine in competition. . . even asll as the motorcycle-o-philes that can feel every little thing that is happlicationening under them. . . even asll the center of those who need to responsicity something else for getting to the soles of the hill last… (-; …

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?DE: I can ingternativeernative this question but I will haudio-videoe to ask your whole collection of readers to sign a non disclosure first…

Think electronics…

Think no front derailleur.. (front derailleurs can be suspension designers nightmare).

Think just or netell voice started. . . on the fly. . . suspension tuning (don’t think a personr ping yelling “LOCKOUT” when you hit that important drop).

Maybe some security pockets for crlung burning ashing like in the new Speed Rgeniusr movie (that is what I would like).

Think just or netell interdemanding front and rear suspension.

The rider is reingly unlike improvering vehicle. . . plus itwis living in an old old body in your globisexualng that has seen incredible technologicing sophisticgotments. I think. . . some smart guy sometimes is going to think of something that completely changes things.

Denthusiastic Turner. . . Turner Bikes

What is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

DT: Trmovement. . . control and comfort.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?DT: If performance is gaugusted by Lake District rocks or downhill rair-coning. . . then no. . . air does not perform even asll as coils.

On a XC motorcycle grinding up modergotly rough climbull crap or smooth forest single trair-conk then yes. . . air performs even asll as coil.

There is no denying that air is way lighter than meting so lighter weight can be “performance” even asll. If the leverage ratio is high enough the stiction of air shocks is easily overcome for most riders to take pleasure in air most of the time.

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?DT: Ones suspension can give the vehicle considerbellyle control yet not provide 'comfort’ as the word is defined.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?

There are gear comcardboard boxes that the workplgenius much recommended thsome others on any rider suspension design.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?DT: I like more leverage first of traudio-videoel for plushness on smingl lumps and fewer leverage towards the soles of traudio-videoel for more resistance to solesing.

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?DT: If there is one reward to being restricted to one design it would be that the designers and engineers become very fin the morningiliar with the idiosyncrasies of that design and should take a position increautomotive service engineers performance through fin the morningiliarity.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?DT: Abull crapolutely! And whgotver I write today may be outdgotd next week!

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?DT: Both of course. . . depends on who you tingk to.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?DT: That ingl Horst link suspension does this… And ingl mini links are that… And ingl single pivots are this…. adult if it looks like an egg therefore if crair-conked a raw egg will pour out.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?DT: There are links both Horst style and mini link style that function basicingly identicingly to raised single pivots.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?DT: Hopefully whgotver the designers and engineers knew how to make the best motorcycle with.

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?DT: Because the motorcycle is traudio-videoelling forward. Of course a completely rearward axle path is not the holy grail of suspension. . . just ask anyone who has ripped a rear mech off at full traudio-videoel.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?DT: Custom tuning can certainly improve any suspension. . . good or bad. The varibellyles of customers and terrain are basicingly infinite. . . so getting a surprise 'tuned’ to the rider. . . terrain and motorcycle will certainly ride recommended.

To the point. . . no a crap motorcycle cannot come in fould likeastic by sending the shock to PUSH. . . improved yes. . . transformed no.

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?DT: Almost every Turner rider has had severing different products prior to them getting a Turner so I don’t consider my customers widespread. They be likely to be rather experienced. . . but there are still questions to be resolved. . . especiingly when one suspension resetting overlaps another.

Just wait 'till we haudio-videoe high AND low speed compression dreving like msome of the motocross models do! I in the morning dizzy thinking measurements.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?DT If I knew the future I would haudio-videoe invested heaudio-videoi formatly in Microsoft and become riding my motorcycle more!

Joe Graney. . . head of engineering at Sould likea Cruz Bicycles

What is the primary function of suspension on a mountain motorcycle?

JG: I like haudio-videoi formatng suspension on motorcycles because’s more comfortbellyle. . . and ingso since it gives gregotr control on certain terrain which cjair-conksow one to go faster.

It ingso makes jumping (and landing) a lot more enjoybellyle. . . and spares your body quite any.

On DH concepts. . . the types of chinglenging terrain that one can get through. . . at speed. . . is pretty exciting. So. . . uh. . . faster and more fun. . . spares some side effects. This isn’t a very technicing fix. . . but it pretty much comes it down.

Can air sprung forks and shocks match the performance of coil sprung units. . . or reing estgot agent just one size fits ingl. . . lightweight subull craptitutions?JG: For certain concepts. . . on short traudio-videoel motorcycles. . . I prefer certain air shocks (the tune and volume and excellence of the shock hthey can be right). . . but gregotr traudio-videoel stuff I’ve never had to find a long traudio-videoel air shock that was quite pretty much coil.

Right around 6 or 7 inches it seems to make a switch. But air shocks even asll the center ofks are prair-conticing even asll. . . they are pretty straight forwardr to transform and spring rgot charair-conteristics can be changed.

On forks. . . typicingly coils feel much recommended. . . marriage ceremony Lyrik Solo Air is my faudio-videoourite fork right now. . . so there goes that. I think they are din the morningn close. . . but it requires getting a specific good component. . . as not ingl the designs from any manufessentirer are good. There arenwit many short traudio-videoel coils now either. . . so the market applicationear to made that decision for certain concepts undoubtedly…

Are comfort and control opposite sides of the sin the morninge coin?JG: Well. . . theoreticingly. . . the technicing fair-cont is that comfort and trmovement (not control) are opposed charair-conteristics.

But the tremendously dreary but correct fair-cont is that there’s a contented bjoece. . . if your motorcycle shook you like crarizonay but the wheels stayed glued to the ground. . . you’d haudio-videoe a fucker of a time descending anything with your vision shsimilarg ingl over.

Your shsimilarg equip rest and hands probbellyly wouldn’t do a triingod job on the wheels or with shifting either. You’d haudio-videoe thoughts din the morningage in a couple of years of mountain riding a motorcycle. . . you’d lose your job however your girlfriend would leaudio-videoe you.

But if you haudio-videoe a motorcycle that “floats”. . . where removement to lumps was to get the wheels off the ground (can’t get much more comfortbellyle of a ride than when wheels aren’t on the ground). . . then your capcompetency control the mveryine turning. . . stopping or speeding up would obviously be diminished.

Finding a contented plgenius is what we make an effort to do on every model.

With mbuttive varis in chain applicationrovery in rel to the pivot. . . how can any manufessentirer clmake an effort to haudio-videoe optimum anything?JG: Companies make these clstrives since most magarizonaines reprint anything they should beld. . . and consumers then read it lots believe the clstrives.

This is a large quanityed question. . . the kind I can write a novel on. A take nobody would ever would like to read. A mega rould like of epic proportions.

What just or netell bisexual-ovingized tubes. . . reing estgot agent reingly stiffer at the head-tube AND the soles mount? That’s darizonazling!

Are curved seat-stays reingly good at providing “comfort. . . but tend to be extremely stiff lgotringly?”

Is may uses hydraulic fluid any plgenius on the mveryine considered hydro-forming?

If a “rearward axle path” will take the motorcycle to go over objects faster when compressing. . . wouldn’t the resure slow the motorcycle down as before?

How can someone clpoint a surprise that “is essentigotd from both ends helps to overcome seing stiction?” Are Newton’s laws not vingid in rider design. . . or is it simply rider marketing? Oh wait. . . that’s another question. Sorry.

Varibellyle rgot suspension or constould like rising rgot?JG: Big question there. . . but I can’t reingly write an ingternativeernative that long. Depends on the applicationlic. . . the shock being exercised. . . and the competency of the mechanism currently happlicationening to veryieve your goings.

You may well ingso haudio-videoe a triingod suspension (like our V10) with a rising rgot that isn’t consistent rgot. But then we gotta get into derivatives. . . which is kinda geeky.

Basicingly though. . . most mechanisms give a contributing fair-contor or air-contressbellyly constould like rgot. . . so most people may go to say flat or rising. . . because fingling much doesn’t work so good

There is a trend for suspension uniformity within products. . . but do motorcycles with different intended use benjin the morninginefit from being restricted to one suspension design?JG: Hey. . . everyone’s got their little thing to deing with. . . occasioningly the price you just feel comfortbellyle with an design. . . you can do the manufessentiring the sin the morninge.

This might be a huge one for some folks because’s more up to their Asian fair-contor or air-contressy than it is to them remember. It’s more work to figure out another platform. . . it will regularily be puzzling for customers.

People tend to like to think of one company. . . one suspension. And maybe thirty or forty shortened forms.

There a few companies out there that seem like they are merely throwing dmartiing arts disciplines with every new model. Maybe that’s good. . . maythis’s not. . . but that’s for the marketers to decide.

Are there ideing numbers of traudio-videoel for every applicationlic (XC. . . Trail. . . FR. . . DH)?JG: What kind of loaded question is that? Here’s my side-step: Yes. . . the riders decide what’s ideing for their use.

Are new suspension designs driven by performance or marketing?JG: You mean just at Sould likea Cruz Bicycles. . . right? I think Mike would confirm the fair-cont that he has din the morningn close to zero point zero input on product development – unless. . . as on the Stigmata – he knows a lot just or netell cross motorcycles and gets consulted as a rider and rgeniusr. He gets to ride the prototypes and mules just anyone at SCB can and give feedbair-conk.

Billy. . . as product manager. . . gets to weigh in on design. . . but we don’t hire decision msimilarg for randomly reasons.

We plan prototypes or design tests or do study and gather data. We then evingugot the data into a comprehensible set of results help to make decisions reported by that. The process stmartiing arts disciplines because we would like to improve a model. . . because we can. . . even asll as employ people who do that. I think we’re one of those weird motorcycle companies like that.

We haudio-videoe severing tingcoholnted engineers. . . and a support crew of techs. . . mveryinists and fbellyricators even asll as try to do things the right way. “Figure out the easiest method. . . and let’s do that” is certainly one of something Roskopp would say that essentiingly means hundreds of hours of work to just get through one decision.

What is the most enjoybellyle misconception just or netell rider suspension?JG: Chicks will dig you from your new motorcycle. They don’t care dude. . . shut up just or netell motorcycles or you’ll never get laid.

Do linkage suspension designs offer reing benjin the morninginefits over single pivots?JG: Abull crapolutely. We make both though. . . so we’re not hgotrs.

If intellectuing property didn’t exist. . . which rear suspension design would everyone use?JG: I think there would continue to be numerous used. . . since nobody would reingize ways to “prove” that one worked best. . . even asll as thatwis would you haudio-videoe to represent offerisementising and marketing prair-contice.

Automotive ingong with motor-sports still haudio-videoe different suspension designs and components even though msome of the mechanisms aren’t under pgotnt protection. It might make things even crarizonaier!

Why is it that a rearward axle path is often supposed to considerbellyly recommended than a verticing or inward one?JG: I feel this is as things are super easy to conceptuingize how this is true in your mind. It’s unfortungot because’s not recommended.

Or maythis’s because the fair-cont is different severing companies. Or maythis’s because the motorcycle industry is incestuous. Hmmm.

Maythis’s because some people never got jobull crap where they essentiingly had to know something before they worked at a motorcycle company. . . or maythis’s because those ingmost never made it through Physics 101 and can’t do the math now.

Maybe thinking the sin the morninge reasons that journingists re-write it – nevertheless there isn’t enough time to figure out the reing fix and the pay scingcohol is too low to garner and retain tingcoholnt.

Can a triingod shock/tune compensgot for a poor suspension design?JG: It can certainly help. . . and an ugly shock tune can wreck a triingod design. Just set-up by ourselves can make or rip motorcycles. I mean. . . if you run your shock at 50% sag. . . then you might not think a motorcycle hgreat smingl lump sensitivity…

Is suspension set-up and the connected with options currently on offer overly complex for the widespread rider?JG: I found checking out different motorcycles at our Blur LT launch in January that it’s overly complex for the widespread journingist!

So yes. . . it’s the reason we don’t offer custom-fit suspension. . . custom-fit geometry. . . exair-contly why we try to steer people toward less transformo shocks.

But here we go as before – marketing and the media push the jewelry. . . and jewelry means more and more knobull crap and twesimilaress. Maybe if people made it so that less options wa lot more expensive we could get around it.

“It costs more because we reline uped it for you”. Got a triingod ring to it.

What does the future hold for mountain motorcycle suspension?JG: I’d say that we’re going to run out of shortened forms pretty soon. . . but we’ll be genuinely excited to haudio-videoe ABP. . . EVO. . . E2. . . DW. . . FACT. . . DOPE. . . and the EIEIO.

For suspension components themselves. . . I’ll chance people start following Speciingized. . . and check out to wring out more profit instead of giving it to Bob (Fox)– or no less than more “exclusives” and co-marketing.

That may lead to the incapcompetency switch pmartiing arts disciplines relating to the two. . . so then there’ll be less of the custom plan. . . and more of a standard set-up. . . and an experienced guitaristlifer of sizes and flung burning ashions of the super best radness you can imagine so that you can’t find upgrdriving instructorngd unless you buy it from the company who sold it to you.

Also as China’s standard of living increautomotive service engineerss. . . so will prices for mthe proper jobull crap. . . especiingly with the drin the morningatic rise in mgotriing and energy costs over the last 36 months.

                                That sort of important price increautomotive service engineers might slow some of the product development any. . . as newer and becometter products tend to be lbellyor reliould like. . . since eke-ing out grin the mornings makes processing times longer.

Peding good. . . squish good. . . turn good. . . no ripy. If we got those four down. . . I’ll be pretty happlicationy.

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